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It is common knowledge that governments all over the world are involved in providing education for their citizens. To gauge the effectiveness of public education, federal government, states, and independent agencies measure achievement regularly. According to National Public Radio’s (NPR) Bill Chappell, The Program for International Student Assessment, or PISA, collects test results from 65 countries for its rankings, which come out every three (3) years. The latest results, from 2012, show that U. S. students ranked below average in math among the world’s most-developed countries. They were close to average in science and reading.ยป (Note: You may read the complete article at

Many economists believe tax and spending decisions are best made at the lowest level possible (i. e., the Subsidiarity Principle). This means K-12 taxing decisions are best made where the money is spent. Go to the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD)

Website, and examine the PISA 2012 results, located at

Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you: 1. Evaluate the appropriate government role in K-12 education using the test of market failure. Specifically, determine whether private markets could work within a K-12 context, or if government is support necessary. Conclude whether or not the private sector can provide education as well as the public sector. Note: Since market failure may differ depending on the educational level, ensure to distinguish between primary and secondary education. 2. Examine the wealth re-distribution that now occurs under public K-12 education. Determine whether or not such redistribution should be expanded. If you recommend redistribution expansion, suggest the most appropriate funding method. If you do not recommend such expansion, provide a rationale for your response. 3. If voters and politicians decide to improve education overall, examine the fundamental manner in which such improvements could impinge upon state and local budgets. Suggest the manner in which the government could expand the tax base in order to service the burden of improving education. Provide a rationale for your response. 4. Recommend two (2) strategies that either state or federal government may use in order to address declining educational quality overall. Determine the most appropriate funding method for each recommended strategies. Provide two (2) examples of the successful use of the recommended strategies to support your response. 5. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other similar Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

The assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date.

The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Examine the unique nature, functions, and role of public financial management.